Wednesday, April 25, 2007

MMIC-Tutorials 1 to 4 (5 possible diseases and reasons)

1) Endemic Typhus
It is caused by Rickettsia typhi and is transmitted by fleas that infest rats. Less oftenly, it is caused by Rickettsia felis and is transmitted by fleas carried by cats. Symptoms include fever and weakness that are followed by a rash. This disease occur more often in people whose living conditions bring them into contact with rats.

2) Lassa fever
It is caused by Lassa virus and is transmitted through the rat species, Mastomys, in particularly M. natalensis. As certain varieties of Mastomys often live in human homes, the virus is easily transmitted to humans. Transmission occurs via direct contact with rat urine, feces and saliva or via ingestion of excretion-contaminated food. Symptoms include gradually increased fever and malaise. Skin rashes are rare.

3) Plague
It is caused by
Yersinia pestis. There are three types of plagues : bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic. Based on the symptoms presented by the patient, it can be concluded that this is a case of pneumonic plague. It can be transmitted from infected rodents by fleas, direct contact with infected tissues or fluids of the infected animals or respiratory droplets from cats with pneumonia plague.

It is caused by a single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. It can be transmitted by accidentally swallowing cat feces from a cat that is shedding due to poor hygiene after handling anything that might have come into contact with cat feces. Amongst the number of people infected with the Toxoplasma parasite, only those with weak or compromised immune systems could suffer from serious health problems. Most people with this infection would not be aware of it as the may feel that they are simply suffering from "flu" due to its similar symptoms such as fever and fatigue.

5) Lyme disease
It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks. Symptoms include a characteristic expanding rash and fever. Exposure to tick habitats increase the risk of getting Lyme disease. Bacteria from a tick bite can only enter the bloodstream if the tick stays attached to the skin for more than 48 hours. If the tick is not removed within that period of time, the chance of getting Lyme disease is quite high.

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